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Tuesday, 30 July 2019

What are the different colors of blood in the animal kingdom?


Biological fluid tirelessly traversing our arteries and veins, we are used to the symbolic color of blood: red. It is the color of the blood in humans and in vertebrates, so much so that we would be tempted to believe that it would be the only color that it can take. However, this is not the case; on Earth, the blood actually comes in five different colors.

About 6 liters for a man and 5 liters for a woman: this is the amount of blood that runs through our body permanently in a network of blood vessels with a length of 100'000 km. He perfuses all the organic tissues in order to bring them oxygen. It consists of red blood cells (or erythrocytes, Greek erythros for red) which carry a very particular protein: hemoglobin.

Hemoglobin is more precisely a metalloprotein because it contains iron. The iron atoms are capable of fixing oxygen, and this bond between iron and oxygen gives oxyhemoglobin. Oxyhemoglobin thus appears red under the oxidation of the iron contained in hemoglobin. This is why the blood of most vertebrates is red in color. However, not all animals have blood based on hemoglobin.

Hemoglobin is a metalloprotein containing four iron atoms to fix oxygen. The oxidation of iron gives it its red color. Credits: aboutkidshealth

Some species of beetles, ascidians and holothurians, have vanadocytes: cells very rich in vanadium (concentration 100 times higher than in seawater) acting as blood cells. Inside vanadocytes are vanabine, a vanadium-fixing metalloprotein; it is also called hemovanadine. Vanabine does not fix oxygen, so its role is still unknown. But it is she who gives a pale green and yellow color to the haemolymph of these animals.

Vanabine is a metalloprotein that binds vanadium. The oxygenated form, hemovanadine, confers a green or yellow color to certain species of ascidians ( Didemnum soft on the picture). Credits: Bernard Dupont

In annelids (marine worms, leeches, etc.), a large amount of chlorocruorine is found in the blood plasma (and not in the blood cells themselves). It is a metalloprotein whose affinity with oxygen is very low. When oxidized, it appears green in normal plasma concentrations; and pale red in high plasma concentrations.

Spiders, crustaceans, octopus and squid, as well as some species of molluscs, have a haemolymph (circulatory liquid of arthropods) containing hemocyanin. It is a metalloprotein containing copper (two Cu + cuprous cations ) to bind oxygen. The oxygenated form of hemocyanin is blue. This is why the hemolymph of these invertebrates appears blue.

Hemocyanin is a metalloprotein that binds oxygen through cuprous ions. Its oxygenated form takes on a blue color. This is particularly noticeable in the horseshoe crab. Credits: Mark Thiessen

The hemolymph of brachiopods and certain marine worms is made up of hemerythrin, an oligomeric metalloprotein made of iron that transports oxygen. Unlike other ferric hemoproteins, hemerythrin binds oxygen by forming a hydroperoxide complex ROOH. When the hemerythrin fixes the oxygen, it takes on a purplish purple / pink color. The hemolymph of these invertebrates appears purple.



13 comments:

  1. AFRICAN TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CURING HERPES THAT IS GOING VIRAL!
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    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Never give up in life they all say no cure to HSV 2 which is a big lie I have pass through many process also i never believe there is really cure to HERPES until I meet Dr.Ehiaguna the doctor that have been helping many people for many years, I come across this doctor online when I was searching for cure online I found out about this man, and to my greatest surprise this man have the herbal medicine which I have been looking for years I explain my problem to him through the email I found on someone who testify about him also, Dr.Ehiaguna write me a reply and explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 4 days and I took it according to the way Dr.Ehiaguna instructed, I was so happy after two week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative that was the day I have the tears of joy you can also get in contact with my doctor through his email now drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953. And He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV,Infections,ulcer  ETC

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  2. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 CURE (https://ehiagwinaherbalhom.wixsite.com/home)
     

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    ReplyDelete
  8. Never give up in life they all say no cure to HSV 2 which is a big lie I have pass through many process also i never believe there is really cure to HERPES until I meet Dr.Ehiaguna the doctor that have been helping many people for many years, I come across this doctor online when I was searching for cure online I found out about this man, and to my greatest surprise this man have the herbal medicine which I have been looking for years I explain my problem to him through the email I found on someone who testify about him also, Dr.Ehiaguna write me a reply and explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 4 days and I took it according to the way Dr.Ehiaguna instructed, I was so happy after two week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative that was the day I have the tears of joy you can also get in contact with my doctor through his email now drehiaguna@gmail.com or you can also WhatsApp him +2348073908953. And He also have herbs medicine to cured the following diseases; eczema,urethra wart,chronic problems.Herpes, Cancer, Als,Hepatitis, Diabetes, HPV,Infections,ulcer  ETC

    ReplyDelete
  9. i am so glad to write this article today to tell the world how Dr. Ekpen cured my HPV virus that have been in my body since five years ago, ever since then my life has been in complete,i have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors,but it didn't cure my HPV VIRUS neither did it reduce the pain, i was checking for solution on the internet then miraculously came across Dr. Ekpen the powerful herbalist that cure HPV INFECTION,then i contacted his email, i explained everything to him and he prepared a herbal cure and send it to me that was how i got cured from HPV disease totally after receiving his herbal medicine, so my friends viewers why waiting and be suffering with this HPV virus when there is someone like Dr. Ekpen that can get you cured completely. you can contact his Email via: drekpenherbalisthome@gmail.com WhatsApp:+2349062286491

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  10. Grateful to DR AKHIGBE  for all his help for my life, i was having Herpes Simplex Virus, and we were planing on getting married on early December, when we decided to get ourselves tested first and we found out that my fiancee was HSV 2 Positive, my fiancee was so unhappy, because this was a barrier for us to get married, so i went out to search out a remedy for my partner, and it was so surprising howDR AKHIGBE  has been a blessing and healing to the masses, after reading about his work on a blog i immediately emailed him: (Drakhigbeherbalhome5@gmail.com   ) and he wrote back to me that my fiancee will be OK and that we we get married this same year, i couldn't believe it, after doing all that is needed to be done, i was surprise that after 2weeks of using his medicine my fiancee went to the doc and was diagnose negative. For more info contact his email or WhatsApp:+2349021374574  
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  11. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year, I had faith in God that I would be healed someday.This disease started to circulate all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, a few weeks ago I came on search on the internet if I could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search I saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr. Silver and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so I wrote to Dr. Silver telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later I started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr. assured me that I have cured, after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if I have been finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advice is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr. Silver (drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com) sir I am indeed grateful for the help I will forever recommend you to my friends!!! with your lovely Email Address ( drsilverhealingtemple@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +2348123877102

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  12. HOW I GOT RID OF MY HERPES Virus WITH THE HELP OF DR AKERE.    Greetings to the general public, i want to inform the general public how i was
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    ReplyDelete

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