Your source for the latest research news

Tuesday, 5 November 2019

How do bacteria alter Drosophila behavior?

 Confronted with microorganisms that share their environment, eukaryotes have mechanisms to contain them. When this immune barrier is crossed and the animal is infected, other biological processes are triggered that limit the consequences of the infection. In a study published in the eLife journal , researchers show that Drosophila females infected with bacteria lay fewer eggs than healthy females. They provide evidence that this behavioral adaptation is due to the direct detection of a universal compound present in the bacterial wall , called peptidoglycan , by only a few neurons present in the brain of flies.

Please support by visiting the ads in the post your little click can help us to keep posting stuff beneficial for general knowlege, please leave a comment if you have any suggestions:
And Please follow us on Twitter 
Thank you ­čśŐ

Anyone who has been victim of a viral or bacterial infection knows the side effects that result in a loss of appetite , a fragmented sleep and, in extreme cases, a depressive state. While these "side effects" that reflect the impact of microorganisms on the host's nervous system have been clearly established, the nature of the microbial vectors of the effect and the precise identity of the targeted neurons remain, in most cases, unknown.

Figure: (Left): In the absence of infection, fertilized female Drosophila eggs. (Right): During an infection, the proliferating bacteria produce fragments of peptidoglycan, a component of their wall, in the extracellular medium. By unknown mechanisms, this compound of the bacterial wall enters the brain. Its detection by only one or two neurons (framed), of the 100,000 or so contained in the brain of a Drosophila, causes their inhibition (lowering of calcium levels) and, ultimately, a slowdown in egg deposition. It is likely that this drop in egg yield allows the infected Drosophila to allocate as much energy as fight against infection. Once infection is controlled, the level of spawning returns to normal. This is a case of behavioral immunity.
© Ambra Masuzzo.

The researchers had shown in a previous study that egg-laying behavior of fruit-infected Drosophila was modified, with infected females laying fewer eggs than their healthy counterparts. This work provided evidence that the detection of a major and universal component of the bacterial wall, the peptidoglycan, by infected Drosophila neurons alters their behavior. The next step was to identify precisely these neurons and to demonstrate how this bacterial compound could modify their activity.

In this new publication, researchers use the powergenetic and molecular tools available in Drosophila to demonstrate that by acting on only one or two of the 100,000 neurons contained in the Drosophila brain, the bacterial compound alters the behavior of the host. Using calcium imaging to measure intracellular calcium concentration, the authors demonstrate that direct application of bacterial peptidoglycan in vivo or ex vivo is sufficient to block the activity of these neurons. It remains to understand the mechanisms by which the detection of peptidoglycan and activationNF-kB signaling pathway block their activity. The cellular mechanisms that allow the peptidoglycan to reach these neurons by crossing the blood-brain barrier also remain to be elucidated.

The question now arises of the generalization of these discoveries to vertebrates . Several elements suggest that the mechanism could be conserved beyond invertebrates. On the one hand, the peptidoglycan of bacteria produced by the microbiota of mice was detected in the circulationblood and is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. In addition, mutant mice for peptidoglycan receptors exhibit behavioral disorders and social interactions. The recently published work adds an important piece to the complex puzzle that governs interactions between the microbial world and the nervous system of eukaryotes.




    I am from USA i was diagnosed with HSV TPYE 2 while I was pregnant .I cried for days. I was devastated and looking up info on it just made it worse. I don't know how long I have had it for. I don't know if my partner has it or if he was the one who transferred it to me. I had one outbreak while pregnant. That's how I found out I had the virus. I started taking and antiviral and took it everyday twice a day to make sure I wasn't able to get an outbreak. I debated whether I wanted to have my daughter natural or c- section. I was terrified. Stress wasn't helping my situation. I ended up having her natural and she is a beautiful healthy 2 month old baby girl. I try not to think about me having the virus because of my depression i couldn't. so I have to focus more on how to get rid of HSV TPYE 2 because i don't want anything to happen to my daughter and thank God she was born fine. i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like acyclovir, Zovirax, and (valacyclovir)Valtrex without without get rid of my virus. one day i decide to surf the internet for cure so i  saw a testimony  total cure of HERPES by Dr. EHIAGWINA with  NATURAL HERBS so  i pick up the email Address: and contact he an hour later he reply explain to me how am going to get the herbs and how am going to use it  to cure my virus i give a try believe me it work perfectly i used it within seven days now am tested negative i am free from the virus thanks Doc. for so many passing through this contact Dr. EHIAGWINA to help you get rid of the  virus. here is his email address:  you can also call or add him on whats app +2348162084504 He can as well cure so many diseases like...........

    1. ALS

    2. HPV


    4. CANCER

    5. HIV/AIDS

    6. BREAST AND PENIS ENLARGEMENT and others diseases i can't remember now.Thanks Doc am so happy today

  2. Thanks for a wonderful share. Your article has proved your hard work and experience you have got in this field. Brilliant .i love it reading. unexplained mysteries

  3. For the vast majority, the appropriate response is they accept what they accept in light of the fact that that is the thing that another person guided them to accept. We should take a gander at realities and see what Reason says is truth.


About Us

we are bunch of Guys who Love Science and Technology, we are aware that our site looks junk but we don't have enough money to make our website much better, Your support will keep us growing, Please visit some ADS in the site that will be considered as donation and Please keep Sharing and join us on Facebook and Twitter. Thank you for reading our articles, Please leave comments if you feel anything, Have a Nice Life