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Saturday, 7 December 2019

Quantum light processors are demonstrated in practice

Interlaced 3D light beams allow for quantum operations at room temperature and macro scale

Optical quantum processor


Two international teams, working separately, built prototypes of quantum processors made of light.

Qubits formed by intertwining laser beams are expected to make quantum computers less error prone and allow scalability, that is, scaling up processors to a large number of qubits.

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"While today's quantum processors are impressive, it's unclear whether today's designs can scale to extremely large sizes. Our approach starts with extreme scalability - built in from the start - because the processor, called a cluster state, is made of light. , "said Professor Nicolas Menicucci of RMIT University in Australia and leader of one of the teams.

A cluster state is a large collection of intertwined quantum components that perform quantum calculations when measured in a specific way - all operating at macroscopic scale using normal photonic components.



Both teams met the two fundamental requirements for cluster state operation, which comprise a minimum amount of qubits and quantum entanglement in the proper structure for their use in computational calculations.

To this end, specially designed crystals convert common laser light into a type of quantum light called compressed light , which is woven into a cluster state by a network of mirrors, light splitters, and optical fibers.

While the light compression levels achieved so far - which are a measure of photonic processor quality - are too low to solve practical problems, the design is compatible with approaches to achieving next-generation compression levels.

"Our experiment demonstrates that this design is workable - and scalable," said Professor Hidehiro Yonezawa of the University of New South Wales.

Animation showing the temporal evolution of the cluster state generation scheme

Quantum processor at room temperature


Mikkel Larsen and his colleagues at the Technical University of Denmark prefer to call his optical quantum processor prototype a "light carpet."

This is because, instead of the threads of an ordinary carpet, the processor is in fact a carefully crafted web of thousands of intertwined pulses of light.

"Unlike traditional cluster states, we use the temporal degree of freedom to achieve a two-dimensional interlaced network of 30,000 light pulses. The experimental setup is really surprisingly simple. Most of the effort has gone into developing the idea of ​​state generation. cluster, "said Larsen.

The Danish team has also been able to make its light carpet handle quantum entanglement at room temperature, noting that, in addition to error correction and simplification of technology, quantum optical processors can be cheaper and more powerful as they will allow the rapid increase in the number of qubits.

An optical quantum computer, therefore, does not require the expensive and complicated cooling technology used by superconducting qubits. At the same time, light-based qubits, which carry information in laser light, hold the information longer and can transmit it over long distances.



"By distributing the state of the cluster generated in space and time, an optical quantum computer can also scale more easily to contain hundreds of qubits. This makes it a potential candidate for the next generation of larger and more powerful quantum computers," reinforced Professor Ulrik Andersen.


Bibliography:

Article: Generation of time-domain-multiplexed two-dimensional cluster state
Authors: Warit Asavanant, Yu Shiozawa, Shota Yokoyama, Baramee Charoensombutamon, Hiroki Emura, Rafael N. Alexander, Shuntaro Takeda, Jun-Ichi Yoshikawa, Nicolas C. Menicucci , Hidehiro Yonezawa, Akira Furusawa
Magazine: Science
Vol. 373-376
DOI: 10.1126 / science.aay2645

Article: Deterministic generation of a two-dimensional cluster state
Authors: Mikkel V. Larsen, Xueshi Guo, Casper R. Breum, Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen, Ulrik L. Andersen
Journal: Science
Vol. 366, Issue 6463, p. 369-372
DOI: 10.1126 / science.aay4354

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