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Showing posts with label Space & Astrophysics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Space & Astrophysics. Show all posts

Thursday, 21 May 2020

ESO telescope sees signs of planet birth


Observations made with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (ESO’s VLT) have revealed the telltale signs of a star system being born. Around the young star AB Aurigae lies a dense disc of dust and gas in which astronomers have spotted a prominent spiral structure with a ‘twist’ that marks the site where a planet may be forming. The observed feature could be the first direct evidence of a baby planet coming into existence.

“Thousands of exoplanets have been identified so far, but little is known about how they form,” says Anthony Boccaletti who led the study from the Observatoire de Paris, PSL University, France. Astronomers know planets are born in dusty discs surrounding young stars, like AB Aurigae, as cold gas and dust clump together. The new observations with ESO’s VLT, published in Astronomy & Astrophysics, provide crucial clues to help scientists better understand this process.



“We need to observe very young systems to really capture the moment when planets form,” says Boccaletti. But until now astronomers had been unable to take sufficiently sharp and deep images of these young discs to find the ‘twist’ that marks the spot where a baby planet may be coming to existence.

The new images feature a stunning spiral of dust and gas around AB Aurigae, located 520 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Auriga (The Charioteer). Spirals of this type signal the presence of baby planets, which ‘kick’ the gas, creating “disturbances in the disc in the form of a wave, somewhat like the wake of a boat on a lake,” explains Emmanuel Di Folco of the Astrophysics Laboratory of Bordeaux (LAB), France, who also participated in the study. As the planet rotates around the central star, this wave gets shaped into a spiral arm. The very bright yellow ‘twist’ region close to the centre of the new AB Aurigae image, which lies at about the same distance from the star as Neptune from the Sun, is one of these disturbance sites where the team believe a planet is being made.

Observations of the AB Aurigae system made a few years ago with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), in which ESO is a partner, provided the first hints of ongoing planet formation around the star. In the ALMA images, scientists spotted two spiral arms of gas close to the star, lying within the disc’s inner region. Then, in 2019 and early 2020, Boccaletti and a team of astronomers from France, Taiwan, the US and Belgium set out to capture a clearer picture by turning the SPHERE instrument on ESO’s VLT in Chile toward the star. The SPHERE images are the deepest images of the AB Aurigae system obtained to date.

With SPHERE's powerful imaging system, astronomers could see the fainter light from small dust grains and emissions coming from the inner disc. They confirmed the presence of the spiral arms first detected by ALMA and also spotted another remarkable feature, a ‘twist’, that points to the presence of ongoing planet formation in the disc. "The twist is expected from some theoretical models of planet formation,” says co-author Anne Dutrey, also at LAB. “It corresponds to the connection of two spirals  — one winding inwards of the planet’s orbit, the other expanding outwards — which join at the planet location. They allow gas and dust from the disc to accrete onto the forming planet and make it grow."



ESO is constructing the 39-metre Extremely Large Telescope, which will draw on the cutting-edge work of ALMA and SPHERE to study extrasolar worlds. As Boccaletti explains, this powerful telescope will allow astronomers to get even more detailed views of planets in the making. “We should be able to see directly and more precisely how the dynamics of the gas contributes to the formation of planets,” he concludes.



Bibliography:

A. Boccaletti, E. Di Folco, E. Pantin, A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, Y. W. Tang, V. Piétu, E. Habart, J. Milli, T. L. Beck, A.-L. Maire.

Possible evidence of ongoing planet formation in AB Aurigae. 

Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2020; 637: L5

DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202038008

Wednesday, 13 May 2020

What's Mars made of? Researchers simulate the core of Mars to investigate its composition and origin


Earth-based experiments on iron-sulfur alloys thought to comprise the core of Mars reveal details about the planet's seismic properties for the first time. This information will be compared to observations made by Martian space probes in the near future. Whether the results between experiment and observation coincide or not will either confirm existing theories about Mars' composition or call into question the story of its origin.

Mars is one of our closest terrestrial neighbors, yet it's still very far away -- between about 55 million and 400 million kilometers depending on where Earth and Mars are relative to the sun. At the time of writing, Mars is around 200 million kilometers away, and in any case, it is extremely difficult, expensive and dangerous to get to. For these reasons, it is sometimes more sensible to investigate the red planet through simulations here on Earth than it is to send an expensive space probe or, perhaps one day, people.



Keisuke Nishida, an Assistant Professor from the University of Tokyo's Department of Earth and Planetary Science at the time of the study, and his team are keen to investigate the inner workings of Mars. They look at seismic data and composition which tell researchers not just about the present state of the planet, but also about its past, including its origins.

"The exploration of the deep interiors of Earth, Mars and other planets is one of the great frontiers of science," said Nishida. "It's fascinating partly because of the daunting scales involved, but also because of how we investigate them safely from the surface of the Earth."

For a long time it has been theorized that the core of Mars probably consists of an iron-sulfur alloy. But given how inaccessible the Earth's core is to us, direct observations of Mars' core will likely have to wait some time. This is why seismic details are so important, as seismic waves, akin to enormously powerful sound waves, can travel through a planet and offer a glimpse inside, albeit with some caveats.

"NASA's Insight probe is already on Mars collecting seismic readings," said Nishida. "However, even with the seismic data there was an important missing piece of information without which the data could not be interpreted. We needed to know the seismic properties of the iron-sulfur alloy thought to make up the core of Mars."

Nishida and team have now measured the velocity for what is known as P-waves (one of two types of seismic wave, the other being S-waves) in molten iron-sulfur alloys.

"Due to technical hurdles, it took more than three years before we could collect the ultrasonic data we needed, so I am very pleased we now have it," said Nishida. "The sample is extremely small, which might surprise some people given the huge scale of the planet we are effectively simulating. But microscale high-pressure experiments help exploration of macroscale structures and long time-scale evolutionary histories of planets."



A molten iron-sulfur alloy just above its melting point of 1,500 degrees Celsius and subject to 13 gigapascals of pressure has a P-Wave velocity of 4,680 meters per second; this is over 13 times faster than the speed of sound in air, which is 343 meters per second. The researchers used a device called a Kawai-type multianvil press to compress the sample to such pressures. They used X-ray beams from two synchrotron facilities, KEK-PF and SPring-8, to help them image the samples in order to then calculate the P-wave values.

"Taking our results, researchers reading Martian seismic data will now be able to tell whether the core is primarily iron-sulfur alloy or not," said Nishida. "If it isn't, that will tell us something of Mars' origins. For example, if Mars' core includes silicon and oxygen, it suggests that, like the Earth, Mars suffered a huge impact event as it formed. So, what is Mars made of and how was it formed? I think we are about to find out."


Bibliography:

Keisuke Nishida, Yuki Shibazaki, Hidenori Terasaki, Yuji Higo, Akio Suzuki, Nobumasa Funamori, Kei Hirose.

Effect of sulfur on sound velocity of liquid iron under Martian core conditions.

Nature Communications, 2020; 11 (1)

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15755-2

Sunday, 10 May 2020

Study: Could Dark Matter Be Hiding in Existing Data?



Dark matter has so far defied every type of detector designed to find it. Because of its huge gravitational footprint in space, we know dark matter must make up about 85 percent of the total mass of the universe, but we don’t yet know what it’s made of.

Several large experiments that hunt for dark matter have searched for signs of dark matter particles knocking into atomic nuclei via a process known as scattering, which can produce tiny flashes of light and other signals in these interactions.

Now a new study, led by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, suggests new paths for catching the signals of dark matter particles that have their energy absorbed by these nuclei.



The absorption process could give an affected atom a kick that causes it to eject a lighter, energized particle such as an electron, and it might produce other types of signals, too, depending on the nature of the dark matter particle.

The study focuses mostly on those cases where an electron or neutrino is ejected as the dark matter particle strikes an atom’s nucleus.

Published May 4 in Physical Review Letters, the study proposes that some existing experiments, including ones that search for dark matter particles and processes related to neutrinos – ghostly, detectable particles that can pass through most matter and have the ability to change into different forms – can easily be broadened to also look for these absorption-related types of telltale dark matter signals.

Also, the researchers propose that new searches in previously collected particle detector data could possibly turn up these overlooked dark matter signals.

“In this field, we’ve had a certain idea in mind about well-motivated candidates for dark matter, such as the WIMP,” or weakly interacting massive particle, said Jeff Dror, the lead author of the study who is a postdoctoral researcher in Berkeley Lab’s Theory Group and UC Berkeley’s Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics.

Photomultiplier tube arrays are prepared for the WIMP-hunting LUX-ZEPLIN experiment during assembly at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. (Credit: Matt Kapust/SURF)

Dark matter pushes at the boundaries of the known fundamental laws of physics, encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics, and “The WIMP paradigm is very easy to build into the Standard Model, but we haven’t found it for a long time,” Dror noted.

So, physicists are now considering other places that dark matter particles may be hiding, and other particle possibilities such as theorized “sterile neutrinos” that could also be brought into the family of particles known as fermions – which includes electrons, protons, and neutrinos.

“It’s easy, with small modifications to the WIMP paradigm, to accommodate a whole different type of signal,” Dror said. “You can make a huge amount of progress with very little cost if you step back a little bit in the way we’ve been thinking about dark matter.”

Robert McGehee, a UC Berkeley graduate student, and Gilly Elor of the University of Washington were study co-authors.

The researchers note that the range of new signals they are focusing on opens up an “ocean” of dark matter particle possibilities: namely as-yet-undiscovered fermions with masses lighter than the typical range considered for WIMPs. They could be close cousins of sterile neutrinos, for example.

The study team considered absorption processes known as “neutral current,” in which nuclei in the detector material recoil, or get jolted by their collision with dark matter particles, producing distinct energy signatures that can be picked up by the detector; and also those known as “charged current,” which can produce multiple signals as a dark matter particle strikes a nucleus, causing a recoil and the ejection of an electron.

The charge current process can also involve nuclear decay, in which other particles are ejected from a nucleus as a sort of domino effect triggered by the dark matter absorption.

This chart shows the sensitivity range to charged current signals by a variety of experiments. (Credit: Jeff A. Dror, Gilly Elor, and Robert McGehee)

Looking for the study’s suggested signatures of both the neutral current and charge current processes could open up “orders of magnitude of unexplored parameter space,” the researchers note. They focus on energy signals in the MeV, which means millions of electron volts. An electron volt is a measure of energy that physicists use to describe the masses of particles. Meanwhile, typical WIMP searches are now sensitive to particle interactions with energies in the keV range, or thousands of electron volts.

For the various particle interactions the researchers explored in the study, “You can predict what is the energy spectrum of the particle coming out or the nucleon that’s getting the ‘kick,'” Dror said. Nucleon refers to the positively charged proton or uncharged neutron that resides in an atom’s nucleus and that could absorb energy when struck by a dark matter particle. These absorption signals could possibly be more common than the other types of signals that dark matter detectors are typically designed to find, he added – we just don’t know yet.

Experiments that have large volumes of detector material, with high sensitivity and very low background “noise,” or unwanted interference from other types of particle signals, are particularly suited for this expanded search for different types of dark matter signals, Dror said.

LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ), for example, an ultrasensitive Berkeley Lab-led dark matter search project under construction in a former South Dakota mine, is a possible candidate as it will use about 10 metric tons of liquid xenon as its detector medium and is designed to be heavily shielded from other types of particle noise.

The EXO-200 time projection chamber during assembly. (Credit: EXO-200 collaboration)

Already, the team of researchers participating in the study has worked with the team operating the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO), an underground experiment searching for a theorized process known as neutrino-less double beta decay using liquid xenon, to open up its search to these other types of dark matter signals.

And for similar types of experiments that are up and running, “The data is already basically sitting there. It’s just a matter of looking at it,” Dror said.

The researchers name a laundry list of candidate experiments around the world that could have relevant data and search capabilities that could be used to find their target signals, including: CUORE, LZ predecessor LUX, PandaX-II, XENON1T, KamLAND-Zen, SuperKamiokande, CDMS-II, DarkSide-50, and Borexino among them.



As a next step, the research team is hoping to work with experiment collaborations to analyze existing data, and to find out whether search parameters of active experiments can be adjusted to search for other signals.

“I think the community is starting to become fairly aware of this,” Dror said, adding, “One of the biggest questions in the field is the nature of dark matter. We don’t know what it is made out of, but answering these questions could be within our reach in the near future. For me, that’s a huge motivation to keep pushing – there is new physics out there.”


Bibliography:

Jeff A. Dror, Gilly Elor, Robert McGehee.

Directly Detecting Signals from Absorption of Fermionic Dark Matter.

Physical Review Letters, 2020; 124 (18)

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.181301

Tuesday, 5 May 2020

Exoplanets: How we’ll search for signs of life


Whether there is life elsewhere in the universe is a question people have pondered for millennia; and within the last few decades, great strides have been made in our search for signs of life outside of our solar system.

NASA missions like the space telescope Kepler have helped us document thousands of exoplanets -- planets that orbit around other stars. And current NASA missions like Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) are expected to vastly increase the current number of known exoplanets. It is expected that dozens will be Earth-sized rocky planets orbiting in their stars' habitable zones, at distances where water could exist as a liquid on their surfaces. These are promising places to look for life.

This will be accomplished by missions like the soon-to-be-launched James Webb Space Telescope, which will complement and extend the discoveries of the Hubble Space Telescope by observing at infrared wavelengths. It is expected to launch in 2021, and will allow scientists to determine if rocky exoplanets have oxygen in their atmospheres. Oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is due to photosynthesis by microbes and plants. To the extent that exoplanets resemble Earth, oxygen in their atmospheres may also be a sign of life.

Not all exoplanets will be Earth-like, though. Some will be, but others will differ from Earth enough that oxygen doesn't necessarily come from life. So with all of these current and future exoplanets to study, how do scientists narrow down the field to those for which oxygen is most indicative of life?



To answer this question, an interdisciplinary team of researchers, led by Arizona State University (ASU), has provided a framework, called a "detectability index" which may help prioritize exoplanets that require additional study. The details of this index have recently been published in the Astrophysical Journal of the American Astronomical Society.

"The goal of the index is to provide scientists with a tool to select the very best targets for observation and to maximize the chances of detecting life," says lead author Donald Glaser of ASU's School of Molecular Sciences.

The oxygen detectability index for a planet like Earth is high, meaning that oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is definitely due to life and nothing else. Seeing oxygen means life. A surprising finding by the team is that the detectability index plummets for exoplanets not-too-different from Earth.

Although Earth's surface is largely covered in water, Earth's oceans are only a small percentage (0.025%) of Earth's mass. By comparison, moons in the outer solar system are typically close to 50% water ice.

"It's easy to imagine that in another solar system like ours, an Earth-like planet could be just 0.2% water," says co-author Steven Desch of ASU's School of Earth and Space Exploration. "And that would be enough to change the detectability index. Oxygen would not be indicative of life on such planets, even if it were observed. That's because an Earth-like planet that was 0.2% water -- about eight times what Earth has -- would have no exposed continents or land."

Without land, rain would not weather rock and release important nutrients like phosphorus. Photosynthetic life could not produce oxygen at rates comparable to other non-biological sources.

"The detectability index tells us it's not enough to observe oxygen in an exoplanet's atmosphere. We must also observe oceans and land," says Desch. "That changes how we approach the search for life on exoplanets. It helps us interpret observations we've made of exoplanets. It helps us pick the best target exoplanets to look for life on. And it helps us design the next generation of space telescopes so that we get all the information we need to make a positive identification of life."

Scientists from diverse fields were brought together to create this index. The formation of the team was facilitated by NASA's Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science (NExSS) program, which funds interdisciplinary research to develop strategies for looking for life on exoplanets. Their disciplines include theoretical and observational astrophysics, geophysics, geochemistry, astrobiology, oceanography, and ecology.

"This kind of research needs diverse teams, we can't do it as individual scientists" says co-author Hilairy Hartnett who holds joint appointments at ASU's School of Earth and Space Exploration and School of Molecular Sciences.



In addition to lead author Glaser and co-authors Harnett and Desch, the team includes co-authors Cayman Unterborn, Ariel Anbar, Steffen Buessecker, Theresa Fisher, Steven Glaser, Susanne Neuer, Camerian Millsaps, Joseph O'Rourke, Sara Imari Walker, and Mikhail Zolotov who collectively represent ASU's School of Molecular Sciences, School of Earth and Space Exploration, and School of Life Sciences. Additional scientists on the team include researchers from the University of California Riverside, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Porto (Portugal).

It is the hope of this team that this detectability index framework will be employed in the search for life. "The detection of life on a planet outside our solar system would change our entire understanding of our place in the universe," says Glaser. "NASA is deeply invested in searching for life, and it is our hope that this work will be used to maximize the chance of detecting life when we look for it."


Bibliography:

Donald M Glaser, Hilairy Ellen Hartnett, Steven J Desch, Cayman T Unterborn, Ariel Anbar, Steffen Buessecker, Theresa Fisher, Steven Glaser, Stephen R Kane, Carey M Lisse, Camerian Millsaps, Susanne Neuer, Joseph G O’Rourke, Nuno Santos, Sara Imari Walker, Mikhail Zolotov.

Detectability of Life Using Oxygen on Pelagic Planets and Water Worlds.

The Astrophysical Journal, 2020; 893 (2): 163

DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab822d

Thursday, 30 April 2020

New findings suggest laws of nature not as constant as previously thought

Not only does a universal constant seem annoyingly inconstant at the outer fringes of the cosmos, it occurs in only one direction, which is downright weird.

Scientists examining the light from one of the furthermost quasars in the universe were astonished to find fluctuations in the electromagnetic force. Picture: Shutterstock

Those looking forward to a day when science’s Grand Unifying Theory of Everything could be worn on a t-shirt may have to wait a little longer as astrophysicists continue to find hints that one of the cosmological constants is not so constant after all.

In a paper published in prestigious journal Science Advances, scientists from UNSW Sydney reported that four new measurements of light emitted from a quasar 13 billion light years away reaffirm past studies that found tiny variations in the fine structure constant.

UNSW Science’s Professor John Webb says the fine structure constant is a measure of electromagnetism – one of the four fundamental forces in nature (the others are gravity, weak nuclear force and strong nuclear force).

“The fine structure constant is the quantity that physicists use as a measure of the strength of the electromagnetic force,” Professor Webb says.

“It's a dimensionless number and it involves the speed of light, something called Planck's constant and the electron charge, and it's a ratio of those things. And it's the number that physicists use to measure the strength of the electromagnetic force.”



The electromagnetic force keeps electrons whizzing around a nucleus in every atom of the universe – without it, all matter would fly apart. Up until recently, it was believed to be an unchanging force throughout time and space. But over the last two decades, Professor Webb has noticed anomalies in the fine structure constant whereby electromagnetic force measured in one particular direction of the universe seems ever so slightly different.

“We found a hint that that number of the fine structure constant was different in certain regions of the universe. Not just as a function of time, but actually also in direction in the universe, which is really quite odd if it's correct ... but that's what we found.”

Looking for clues

Ever the sceptic, when Professor Webb first came across these early signs of slightly weaker and stronger measurements of the electromagnetic force, he thought it could be a fault of the equipment, or of his calculations or some other error that had led to the unusual readings. It was while looking at some of the most distant quasars – massive celestial bodies emitting exceptionally high energy – at the edges of the universe that these anomalies were first observed using the world’s most powerful telescopes.

“The most distant quasars that we know of are about 12 to 13 billion light years from us,” Professor Webb says.

“So if you can study the light in detail from distant quasars, you're studying the properties of the universe as it was when it was in its infancy, only a billion years old. The universe then was very, very different. No galaxies existed, the early stars had formed but there was certainly not the same population of stars that we see today. And there were no planets.”

He says that in the current study, the team looked at one such quasar that enabled them to probe back to when the universe was only a billion years old which had never been done before. The team made four measurements of the fine constant along the one line of sight to this quasar. Individually, the four measurements didn’t provide any conclusive answer as to whether or not there were perceptible changes in the electromagnetic force. However, when combined with lots of other measurements between us and distant quasars made by other scientists and unrelated to this study, the differences in the fine structure constant became evident.

A weird universe

“And it seems to be supporting this idea that there could be a directionality in the universe, which is very weird indeed,” Professor Webb says.

“So the universe may not be isotropic in its laws of physics – one that is the same, statistically, in all directions. But in fact, there could be some direction or preferred direction in the universe where the laws of physics change, but not in the perpendicular direction. In other words, the universe in some sense, has a dipole structure to it.



“In one particular direction, we can look back 12 billion light years and measure electromagnetism when the universe was very young. Putting all the data together, electromagnetism seems to gradually increase the further we look, while towards the opposite direction, it gradually decreases. In other directions in the cosmos, the fine structure constant remains just that – constant. These new very distant measurements have pushed our observations further than has ever been reached before.”

In other words, in what was thought to be an arbitrarily random spread of galaxies, quasars, black holes, stars, gas clouds and planets – with life flourishing in at least one tiny niche of it – the universe suddenly appears to have the equivalent of a north and a south. Professor Webb is still open to the idea that somehow these measurements made at different stages using different technologies and from different locations on Earth are actually a massive coincidence.

"It raises a tantalising question: does this ‘Goldilocks’ situation, where fundamental physical quantities like the fine structure constant are ‘just right’ to favour our existence, apply throughout the entire universe?"

“This is something that is taken very seriously and is regarded, quite correctly with scepticism, even by me, even though I did the first work on it with my students. But it's something you've got to test because it's possible we do live in a weird universe.”

But adding to the side of the argument that says these findings are more than just coincidence, a team in the US working completely independently and unknown to Professor Webb’s, made observations about X-rays that seemed to align with the idea that the universe has some sort of directionality.

“I didn't know anything about this paper until it appeared in the literature,” he says.

“And they're not testing the laws of physics, they're testing the properties, the X-ray properties of galaxies and clusters of galaxies and cosmological distances from Earth. They also found that the properties of the universe in this sense are not isotropic and there's a preferred direction. And lo and behold, their direction coincides with ours.”

Life, the universe, and everything

While still wanting to see more rigorous testing of ideas that electromagnetism may fluctuate in certain areas of the universe to give it a form of directionality, Professor Webb says if these findings continue to be confirmed, they may help explain why our universe is the way it is, and why there is life in it at all.

“For a long time, it has been thought that the laws of nature appear perfectly tuned to set the conditions for life to flourish. The strength of the electromagnetic force is one of those quantities. If it were only a few per cent different to the value we measure on Earth, the chemical evolution of the universe would be completely different and life may never have got going. It raises a tantalising question: does this ‘Goldilocks’ situation, where fundamental physical quantities like the fine structure constant are ‘just right’ to favour our existence, apply throughout the entire universe?”

If there is a directionality in the universe, Professor Webb argues, and if electromagnetism is shown to be very slightly different in certain regions of the cosmos, the most fundamental concepts underpinning much of modern physics will need revision.



“Our standard model of cosmology is based on an isotropic universe, one that is the same, statistically, in all directions,” he says.

“That standard model itself is built upon Einstein’s theory of gravity, which itself explicitly assumes constancy of the laws of Nature. If such fundamental principles turn out to be only good approximations, the doors are open to some very exciting, new ideas in physics.”

Professor Webb’s team believe this is the first step towards a far larger study exploring many directions in the universe, using data coming from new instruments on the world’s largest telescopes. New technologies are now emerging to provide higher quality data, and new artificial intelligence analysis methods will help to automate measurements and carry them out more rapidly and with greater precision.


Bibliography:

Michael R. Wilczynska, John K. Webb, Matthew Bainbridge, John D. Barrow, Sarah E. I. Bosman, Robert F. Carswell, Mariusz P. Dąbrowski, Vincent Dumont, Chung-Chi Lee, Ana Catarina Leite, Katarzyna Leszczyńska, Jochen Liske, Konrad Marosek, Carlos J. A. P. Martins, Dinko Milaković, Paolo Molaro, Luca Pasquini.

Four direct measurements of the fine-structure constant 13 billion years ago.

Science Advances, 2020; 6 (17): eaay9672

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aay9672

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